Short History of Global Evangelicalism coverThis is a brief chapter-by-chapter summary of Mark Hutchinson and John Wolffe’s A Short History of Global Evangelicalism, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Brief summary  •  How Western Historians have thought of evangelicalism  •  ‘Evangelicalism:’ usage and definitions  •  Notes on the history told by Hutchinson and Wolffe

 

 

 

Origins to 1790s1790s to 1840s1840s to 1870s1870s to 19141900s to 19451945 to 1970s1970s to 2010
“The Surprising
Work of God’
(chapter 2)
“Volunteering
for the Kingdom”
(chapter 3)
“The Kingdom
Enlarged and
Contested”
(chapter 4)
“A New Global
Spiritual Unity”
(chapter 5)
“Fighting Wars
and Engaging
Modernity”
(chapter 6)
“Towards Global
Trans-
Denominationalism”
(chapter 7)
“Localism
and
Transnationality”
(chapter 9)

 

Please note:
(1) This is not a strict summary, while I’ve done my best to be faithful to this material.  Some parts of it were re-organized to make the core content more digestible to a skimming reader.
(2) This is not a summary of every chapter.   These 2 chapters have been excluded:

  • Chapter 1: Understanding Evangelicalism
    We, however, did use Hutchinson and Wolffe’s content to outline the word “evangelicalism” and its confusing meanings.  Our outline is here.
  • Chapter 8: The Actual Arithmetic
    This chapter is on the difficulties of counting evangelicals and details its reasoning for the best estimates.  I personally found the grays in the pie chart extremely difficult to distinguish in my paperback copy.  Our lay summary of Pew (and Gordon-Conwell’s) numbers are here.

(3) If there are any errors that need to be corrected, please, please let us know.

 

 

Origins to 1970s: “The Surprising Work of God”

Origins debated: in the 1730s or in the 1600s, or in continuity with Reformation Protestantism

Most commonly cited origins:

  1. 1734-5 revival in Northampton, Massachusetts, as described in Jonathan Edwards, Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton (1737)

  2. May 24, 1738 John Wesley “felt...Heart strangely warm’d” at a Moravian church meeting, Aldersgate Street, London


Forerunners:

  1. English Puritanism: e.g. works of Richard Baxter (1615-91) and John Bunyan (1628-88)

  2. Scottish Presbyterianism: adoption of Westminster Confession (1643)

  3. High Church Anglicanism’s voluntary religious societies established schools and published literature and supported Christian ministry and missions, e.g. Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge or SPCK (1698), Society for Propagation of the Gospel or SPG (1701)

  4. Continental European Pietism: Fostered “a priesthood of all believers” among Lutherans through small group prayer and Bible reading gatherings, and charitable work through an orphanage, dispensary schools etc. Johann Arndt (1555-1621), Philipp Jakob Spener Pia Desideria (1975), August Hermann Francke (1663-1727) and his founding of University of Halle (in present day Germany), Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-60)


1730s and 1740s “Great Awakening” aka “Evangelical revival”
Almost simultaneous movements of revival in Central Europe, British Isles and North America. International event because traveling preachers like English Calvinist George Whitefield


1790s and early 1800s “Second Great Awakening”
Does not mean that revivals ceased between 1740s and 1790s
Early Evangelicals divided over 2 key problems:

1) How should we theologically understand this experience of new life and personal relationship with God?

2) Should we stay our existing church structures, create new ones or do both?

 

1790s to 1840s: “Volunteering for the Kingdom”

“Voluntary” efforts expand evangelicalism


Existing denominations were “evangelicized”

  • Church of England aka Anglicanism in the UK: Evangelicalism was made respectable and necessary for the national good, in large part because of William Wilberforce’s A Practical View of the Religious Systems of Professed Christians in the Higher and Middle Classes of this Country Contrasted with Real Christianity (1797)
  • Congregationalism in Wales and England: evangelical congregationalism appealed to growing middle classes who found Church of England too aristocratic, and Methodism too populist.


  • Formed new and split old denominations

  • Methodism emerged from the revivals of the 1700s into a denomination, empowering many on society’s margins to proclaim the Gospel and supporting new believers through itinerant preaching, “camp meetings” in the US, “class meetings,” small groups that fostered community and spiritual growth.
  • Free Church of Scotland: 450 ministers left (Presbyterian) Church of Scotland to form the Free Church of Scotland (Disruption of 1843)
  • Disciples of Christ, some Presbyterians splintered of to form this in 1803.
  • 1837 “New school” of Presbyterian evangelicals emerged, catalyzed by Charles Finney’s revival success and 1835 Lectures on Revivals of Religion.
  • Influenced also Quakers, Lutherans, German and Dutch Reformed churches


  • Growth of voluntary societies (para-church) bolstered the work of churches by promoting social engagement and mission. Motivated by rising premillennial eschatology (after a period of “global cataclysm,” Jesus will return)

  • Promotion of Sunday School education, in colonial settings, often the first schools of any kind
  • Publication and distribution of Bibles and other religious literature, e.g. 1804 British and Foreign Bible Society, 1816 American Bible Society 
 

  • Home mission societies directed at geographical margins like Scottish highlands and islands, Ireland, settlers and Native Americans on US’s western frontier 


  • Moral causes, William Wilberforce calls for the abolition of the slave trade in England’s House of Commons (1789), 
Wilberforce's 1787 Proclamation Society (and later Society for the Suppression of Vice in 1802) combated society’s perceived moral ills like “gambling, obscenity, prostitution, blasphemy and atheism,” 1809 Society for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Sabbath (helped regulate hours of work), 1826 American Society for the Promotion of Temperance
  • Support of poor, 1796 Society for the Bettering the Condition and Increasing the Comforts of the Poor, evangelical Lord Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury’s work in promoting legislative measures to improve living and working conditions, restricting child labor and promoting public health 





  • Development of a global mission

    1700s: missions was mostly to West Indies slaves and settlers in America lead by Methodists and Moravians 


    1790s and early 1800s: formation of Baptist, evangelical Anglican and Congregational and Presbyterian societies; went particularly to India, southern and west Africa, Australia, New Zealand and islands in the Pacific 


    1792, William Carey’s Enquiry into the Obligation of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathen inspires founding of mission agencies like Baptist Missionary Society (1792), London Missionary Society (1795), Society for Missions to Africa and the East (later, Church Missionary Society, 1799), American Board for Foreign Missions (1810) 


    1813 Wilberforce and others campaigned in UK for “greater acceptance of missionary activity” when charter of East India Company was up for renewal. 


    Methodism (compared to France) helped Britain maintain an orderly society in late 1700s, early 1800s. Hypothesis of early 20c French historian, Elie Halevy. Controversial thesis among scholars, but still influential.

    Methodism prepared the way for the industrial revolution. 1963 EP Thompson, British Marxist historian’s seminal The Making of the English Working Class: Methodism instilled discipline and allowed for productivity. Many factory workers accepted hardship because “a better world was yet to come.”

    Evangelicalism helped shaped American national identity and political culture in northern and middle states. To some degree, evangelicalism had lent its language to the expansion of the nation: “manifest destiny.”

    Evangelicalism shaped a “Victorian” ethos. Wilberforce and his Clapham Sect combated society’s perceived moral ills.

     

    1840s to 1870s: “Kingdom Enlarged and Contested”  

    Evangelicalism’s success made it commonplace
    Loss of public sympathy, political power, and also intellectual traction; “emerged a stereotype of the ‘imaginary evangelical,' a public scapegoat




    Rise of premillenialism fueled revivalism and zionism
    • Jesus is coming back! The Gospel being spread all over the world is a ”sign of the times,” a precursor to the Second Coming.
    • Revival is the answer to all our problems: particularly the ‘rationalism, popery and infidelity’ of the time marked by industrialization.


    More revivals
    1730-1839: Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, US, Australia, Canada, South Africa, South America
    1830s “Holiness movement: ” Phoebe Worrall Palmer’s “Tuesday Meeting for the Promotion of Holiness” expanded Methodist camp meeting teachings to “prayer revivals” and “businessmen’s revivals” in Britain and America
    1865 East London Christian Revival Society/Mission, 1878 renamed Salvation Army. “By wrapping their members in uniforms, the Army transcended gender and class barriers which bedeviled much charity work, and captured the energy of popular ‘Holy Spirit’ religion for social transformation.” (103) Founded by William and Catherine Booth.


    Unity is a sign of revival, but was there unity?
    1840 first World Anti-Slavery Conventions
    1846 founding of Evangelical Alliance
    • The call for unity for many made it plain how much disunity existed especially in countries where Protestants were the minority (like in Germany and France).
    • Conflicting ideas on how to deal with war, mutinies, rising secular liberalism, and Catholicism
    • Large geographic distances formed different evangelical cultures
    “Evangelicalism did much more than teach the world to behave, they taught other traditions how to communicate, how to adapt to modernity, to co-opt or bypass the artificial walls of status quo and state religion.” (94)

    3 key problems of evangelicals during this time

    1) What does the Kingdom of God look like among a body of believers? Do you reform pre-existing church structures or do you form new ones?
    “All agreed that the ‘true church’ was probably not hear among us.” (115)

    2) Is the Kingdom of God here now, or is it to come later? “Was the church in the world, or was it a spiritual reality only to be truly realised at the end of all things?” (115)

    3) “‘Where are we in time?’” (in terms of premillennial beliefs of Jesus’ return and judgment)

     

    1870s to 1914: New Global Spiritual Unity 

    More revivals

    1861 Charles Spurgeon opens “Metropolitan Tabernacle, Southwark,” not a church but “a great preaching hall”

    Dwight Lyman Moody’s (1837-99) international enterprise of revivalism inspires new generation of global evangelists. Shoe salesman turned pastor turned president of the YMCA, publisher of his own paper, “Heavenly Tidings”, founder of schools, and evangelist.



    New global spiritual unity symbolized by Keswick Conferences (1886):
    • Promoted “spiritual rest in God,” being “all one in Jesus” that became model for similar conferences around the world
    • Started by middle classes, built upon Methodism, “Holiness” movement books like Asa Mahan’s Scripture Doctrine of Christian Perfection (1839), and Baptism of the Holy Ghost (1870) William Arthur’s Tongue of Fire (1858), WE Boardman’s Higher Christian Life, (1859), Robert Pearsall Smith, Holiness through Faith (1870)
    • Inspired the “Faith missions” and Student Volunteer Movements recruiting missionaries of “the bright, the privileged, and the mobile.”


    Hudson Taylor’s China Inland Mission (CIM) incorporated Keswick practices and inspired many “faith missions” “[A]voided association with imperialism” and “successfully institutionalizing for the first time the principles of cross-cultural missions.” (129)



    Results of transmitted faith varied greatly

    Kenya: In some parts, evangelicalism became associated with the elites
    Korea: Evangelicalism became associated with those feeling oppressed by Japanese rule-
    China: Evangelicalism sometimes appropriated into “popular shamanism.” The Taiping Rebellion resulted in a misappropriation of Christianity.
    Present-day Nigeria: Samuel Crowther’s spread of a Yoruba form of Christianity was the first non-Western culture to be self propagating, self supporting and self governing.



    Edinburg Missions Conference of 1910
    (not exclusively an evangelical event)
    • Non-Anglo Christians speak out
      • Indian Anglican VS Azariah called attention to "problem of race relationships” and called for a new normal rather than the “happy exception.” (168)
      • Australian Chinese evangelist Cheok Hong Cheong was considered “fractious” because he “opposed white-dominated decision making.” Pointed out hypocrisy of preaching the Gospel, and yet, Britain still sold opium to China.
      • Some German evangelicals felt global missions “merely consolidated the dominance of English and ‘the image of a growing and heedless Anglo-American but increasingly American, domination.’” (142)
    • Mission set-backs in Japan and China. Evangelicals worried about their “failed” efforts in Japan and China would close the doors to a returning Christ.
    • Need for more missionaries. Henry Grattan Guinness The Approaching End of the Age (1879) calculated that there were not enough missionaries.


    Some evangelicals worried about their lack of theologians, their disappearing academy and their growing image as “backward-looking dogmatists”
    Founded evangelical Anglican organizations in UK, Canada to train evangelical clergy like Church Association (1865), National Church League (1906), Wycliffe Hall, Oxford (1877), Ridley Hall, Cambridge (1881), St. John’s, Kilburn (1863), Wycliffe College in Toronto, Moore College, Sydney
    Popular culture had absorbed evangelicalism as non-evangelicals were giving sermons in the open air, borrowing its religious language of empire and the state taking over its charitable endeavors.

    Keswick symbolizes a new global spiritual unity by helping evangelicals “sidestep the growing entanglements of nationalism, secularism, modernism” (145)

    Tensions between missionaries on the ground who saw nuances, and “home” sending agencies and scholars who perferred to see others in monolithic categories.

     

    1900s to 1945: Fighting Wars and Engaging Modernity 

    More revivals
    Melbourne (1902), Wonsan, Korea (1903), Wales (1904), Mukti, India (1905), Los Angeles (1906), Pyongyang, Korea (1907), Belgian Congo, (1914), Ivory Coast and Ghana (1914-5), Shandong, China (1930), Gahini, Rwanda (1936)


    Growth of indigenous churches and leaders
    India: KE Abraham’s Indian Pentecostal Church of God (1924), Ceylon Pentecostal Mission (1927), Dipti Mission (1925), Kandiswamy Chetti’s Fellowship of the Followers of Jesus (Madras, 1933-43)
    China and Chinese diaspora in SE Asia: John Sung (1901-44)
    Africa: William Wade Harris in Liberia and Ivory Coast in 1910s, Simon Kimbangu in the Congo and the Aldura in Nigeria in 1920s
    Korea, After Pyongyang revival (1907), Protestants surpassed Catholic numbers; Korean evangelicals became prominent in the nationalist campaign against Japanese rule


    Emergence of Pentecostalism:
    • Did not only just start from a revival at Azusa Street Mission in Los Angeles, but almost simultaneously in many parts of the world. “Convergence of global (particularly Methodist) evangelicalisms”
    • Pentecostal was supported and criticized from other evangelicals.
      • Begged questions: place of healing in Christian practice? If power followed experience, what is the role of doctrine?
      • Critique: BB Warfield called its “counterfeit miracles” not only misleading but demonic; William Bell Riley’s World Christian Fundamentals Association rejected it; AB Simpson of the Christian and Missionary Alliance saw it as a continuation of Keswick, however, during the 1920s, most Keswick conventions rejected Pentecostal manifestations and doctrine.
      • Embraced by National Association of Evangelicals (US) after World War II, and became a key dividing point within conservative evangelicalism.


    Attitudes towards World War I varied widely.
    • Some saw it as a duty and a necessity, a “righteous cause,” a way to maintain the church’s influence in society, a way for boys to learn discipline and be kept from “irreligion and drink" and to face up to the need for Jesus’ saving action in their own personal lives.
    • Some saw it like British Baptist John Clifford as an “infringement of the liberty of conscience”


    After World War I was not a good time for Western evangelicals.
    • Canada, Scotland, Australia, the same countries that enthusiastically sent sons to war, lost significant numbers of church-goers after the war.
    • Evangelicals became increasingly anti-internationalist, as liberal Protestants formed both Faith and Order Movement and formation of National Councils of Churches
    • Withdrawal of American evangelicals from political processes after harsh media coverage of Scopes trial (1925). Theologically liberal voices in journals like Christian Century had “explicit agenda of eradicating ‘defective’ religious conservatism.’”


    Emergence of fundamentalist evangelicalicalism
    • 1910-1915, “The Fundamentals: A Testimony of the Truth,” trans-Atlantic volumes of essays by leading evangelical scholars because a manifesto used to call for a new Protestantism.
    • May 1919 William B Riley and other convene first conference of World’s Christian Fundamentals Association.
    • US: fundamentalists evangelicals tried to reform institutions like at Princeton Theological Seminary, but started forming alternative institutions like Dallas Theological Seminary (1927), Bob Jones University (1927), Westminster Theological Seminary (1929). Pressed out of mainline institutions, missions organizations, and Bible Colleges became far more important.
    • Australia and Canada: Conservative evangelicals stayed in mainstream denominations and formed alliances amongst themselves because their numbers could not support independent institutions.
    • Britain: despite close theological views, “they pointedly avoided the word ‘fundamentalist;’” Cambridge Intercollegiate Christian Union (CICCU) unaffiliated from umbrella Student Christian Movement in 1910 to uphold its view of inspiration and authority of the Bible, and Inter-Varsity Fellowship formed (1928) but for the most part, there was no entrenched polarization.


    “Both liberals and evangelicals were wrong-footed by the challenges presented by the rise of Nazism”
    • “Faith movement,” Confessing Church signees of Barmen Declaration (1934) opposed Christian accommodation with Nazis, like Dietrich Bonhoeffer. German Theologian Karl Barth traced the compliance of most German Christians to the errors of theological liberalism.
    • Britain and American evangelicals saw World War II more as a political war, not a spiritual one; “a tragic manifestation of sin.’


     

    1945 to 1970s: Towards Global Trans-Denominationalism

    Many evangelicals recognized the need to reconnect with public sphere and used media, new funding sources and also formed new types of organizations to do so.

    Media:
  • Radio and eventually, TV: Charles Fuller’s ”Old Fashioned Revival Hour” (1925), Oral Roberts, Jim and Tammy Faye Baker,
  • “Evangelical vaudeville” acts by Youth For Christ made appeals to commit to Christ every Saturday night
  • Billy Graham Crusades: promotion of a “gospel which works” international in Britain and Australia, Asia, Africa
  • Folk and pop music became a way to re-indigenize evangelical music


  • New funding:
  • William Randolph Hearst told his Los Angeles papers in 1949 to “puff Graham” and got him in Time and Life Magazinee making him a star all over the country.
  • Graham’s success allowed wealthy and powerful evangelicals to support Graham
  • John Stott’s Langham and Evangelical Literature Trusts, Australian based Leo and Mildred Morris Foundation fund global expansion of evangelical media after World War II


  • New types of organizations: (many started by or with Billy Graham)
  • Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, Oral Roberts Evangelistic Association
  • World Evangelical Fellowship revived original international Evangelical Alliance vision:(as a counter to the World Council of Churches)
  • 1966 World Congress on Evangelism in Berlin
  • Lausanne Congress (1974): 2700 delegates from 150 nations, “possibly the widest-ranging meeting of Christians ever held.”


  • New social agencies that represented a new shift in evangelical consciousness in the 1970s, like the Evangelical Alliance Relief Fund or Tearfund (1968)


    New trans-denominational global unity through super-stardom of Billy Graham
  • Graham’s campaigns effectiveness determined by church networks behind them.
  • Participated in mixed race campaigns and discussions with Martin Luther King Jr. over civil disobedience
  • Graham’s inclusiveness cost him: associations with Pentecostal healers in 1950s, Charismatic movement in 1960s, Jesus People in later 1960s made other evangelicals nervous. Associated with Pentecostal Oral Roberts.


  • More revivals producing more leaders and missionaries
  • Revivals continued through Anglican and Keswick networks
  • East African revivals in allowed indigenous leaders to claim ecclesial leadership. 1935 Kabale convention, revivals spread Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya and Tanzania “blend of Wesleyan-Anglican theology, Pentecostal fervor and African passion” (186)
  • US: college revivals, Wheaton (1950)
  • Canada: 1948 revival at Sharon Orphanage and Schools, North Battleford, Saskatchewan
  • 1951 triennial foreign missions conference at University of Illinois-Urbana (InterVarsity), recruited “tens of thousands” of US students into missions
  • Healing Revivals: 1950s Oral Roberts and WM Branham
  • Charismatic movement beginnings: 1959 Healing Revival at Dennis Bennett’s Van Nuys Episcopalian congregation experienced this brought “hundreds of thousands” mainline believers into ‘spirit baptism.’ Full Gospel Businessmen International, Agnes Sanford, Order of St. Luke, Camps Farthest Out, David DuPlessis and Harold Bredesen. Missionaries (especially Methodist and Baptist) returning from Latin America, Asia and Africa reported experiencing charismatic renewal (and charismatic gifts) well before this revival.
  • Nigeria 1970-1975: revivals at six universities proliferated into many churches and ministries


  • Unraveling of evangelical consensus:
  • Groups who wanted to return to the old order emerged, representing a break down in consensus on revival. e.g Nine Marks, Sovereign Grace, Founders groups in Southern Baptist Convention, Reformed Evangelical Protestant Association in Sydney Anglicanism.
  • New ‘evangelical left.’ Jim Wallis, protested war, racism and inequality in magazine entitled The Post-American, later renamed Sojourners.
  • 1960s Jesus Revolution/Movement: “It was an experience of civil rights language which restored a very Puritan priority of the human conscience, the communitarianism of the hippies and a generation-specific form of worship sourced in the Gospel but interpreted through rock and folk protest music.” Billy Graham’s relationship with these “Jesus People” helped them return to mainstream church after the counterculture crashed in 1970s
  • Jesus people melds with Calvary chapel, and Calvary Chapel grows and takes on Jesus people thinking. Other ministries birthed from this marriage: Christian World Liberation Front and Vineyard Christian Fellowship
  • L’Abri in Switzerland, Francis and Edith Schaeffer combined Reformed concerns with life and communal approach for new generation of evangelical students.


  • Increased efforts in research to counter liberal scholarship
  • Rise of evangelical scholarship Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis at the University of Manchester, FF Bruce, Archaeology and the New Testament (1947); Leon Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross (1955).
  • JI Packer and John Stott translated scholarship to students and molded their thinking.
  • Literature division that grew into InterVarsity Press.
  • British Commonwealth: Establishment of Tyndale House (1944) as a residential research center for post-grad scholars in Cambridge, Henry Martyn Center at Westminster College, Cambridge, Faraday Institute, St. Edmunds College, Cambridge, Center for the Study of Australian Christianity, at Macquarie University. Revived colleges like Wycliffe Hall, Oxford, evangelical theological college founded in 1877 and Oak Hill Theological College, North London (1932).
  • Canada: Regent College, grad school of theology to make laity its central focus---”significant influence funneling British influences into American evangelicalism”
  • Ever growing list of graduate fellowships, professional fellowships, science groups---anything to help support faith in secular university and professional environments.
  • Reformed scholars filled-the gap for decades before “a viable research culture could develop. (191) Harold Ockenga who help found National Association of Evangelicals and Fuller Seminary, Carl Henry, theologian and editor of Graham’s Christianity Today.
  • InterVarsity would provide audience and later academic thrust needed to have evangelical responses to modernism and modernity in 1950s-70s. InterVarsity went from the only evangelical presence on campuses to a presence among many.
  • Spent vast amounts creating ”sustainable, top-rank, evangelical research institutions” like at Baylor University in Texas
  • Growing problems with traditional church institutions meant increased commitment to “church invisible.”

    Since Western evangelical intellectual centers failed to think about their theology, than Africans, Asians and other Christians had to work out for themselves what being a Christian meant.
  • “Westerners who encountered this new dynamism were challenged to the core as to how to deal with their own Eurocentric, Enlightenment traditions.”


  • “Neo-evangelicals never forgot that ‘fundamentalist problem’ had essentially been a battle between scholars, a struggle for their mind of the West, which they had lost.” (189)

    “Evangelical writing at the time was fascinated with achieving ‘the best’ and ‘most rigorous’ scholarship.”
  • More scholarly books were produced by British Commonwealth authors than Americans because evangelical scholars continue to be dependent on conservative evangelical colleges, “continued to define the role of evangelical scholarship as defensive.” (193)
  • Interdenominational evangelicals in intellectual vocations though found themselves in tension with denominational and church-based brothers and sisters.
  •  

    1970s to 2010: Localism and Transnationality

    More revivals, particularly a “convention form of charismatic renewal”
    Argentina (1983), Toronto, Canada (1993-4), London (1994), Brownsville, FL (1995)


    Also rise of evangelical influence in Latin America, Nigeria and South Korea


    3 major events dominated international evangelical action
    1. Outbreak of aids
    2. Perestroika in Soviet Union in 1987 and its collapse in 1991: released a surge of ministries into previously closed Eastern Block
    3. Destruction of World Trade Center on September 11, 2001


    Evangelicals in the public sphere
  • US: 1976 Jimmy Carter elected as an openly evangelical Democrat, ushered in “year of the Evangelical” as US media noticed that there are millions of evangelicals around, but just never noticed them. Evangelicals begin to be an important political grouping, as even Carter was defeated “in part through skillful manipulation of evangelical divisions by Ronald Reagan” (247)
  • 1976 Moral Majority founded by Baptist pastor and radio preacher Jerry Falwell was “symbolic of a global rise in institutional ‘evangelical assertiveness’ along with paisleyite Protestantism in Northern Ireland, Logos Foundation in Australia (247) Moral Majority started collapsing by 1986. Drove a “generational wedge into the evangelical conversation” and reflected that “Evangelicals...are not interested so much in politics or even in theology, but in ‘perceived spiritual action.’”


  • Fracturing of Evangelical unity.

    1990-2010 many reformed evangelicals increasingly defined their borders and took advice of Martyn Lloyd Jones: they left, divided or conquered those in their denominations who were not like themselves.

    New kind of churches (as described by Seattle Pastor Mark Driscoll): (262)
  • “Church 1.0: traditional, institutional, assumes central place in culture”
  • “Church 2.0: contemporary, business orientation, fights marginal place in culture, pastors are CEOS marketing spiritual goods and services to customers.” Rise of Mega churches: Brazil's “Universal Church of the Kingdom of God” in Sao Paolo, “networked” like megachurch like Hillsong in Australia (and now in Ukraine, Britain, France, Sweden, South Africa and US), Yoido Full Gospel Church in Seoul, Willow Creek in Illinois
  • “Church 3.0: postmodern, pluralistic accepts marginal place in culture, pastors are local missionaries.” Also known as “emergent church”
  • “Secularism was winning, religion was losing.” (246)
    Evangelicals are truly global pilgrims and still learning to be transnational.


    “Where squeezed out of the public space, evangelicals have learned from models of subcultural protest in the 1960s to develop a range of non-political public action.”


    Mega-churches in US “organized spiritually” vs. locally, could now “internalize direct action towards the global.” Tended to attract “high-fertility ‘exurban’ white family formation and aspirational urban black and Hispanic family settlement” as it took the everyday activities of life. (261)


    “Much of the debate (about emergent church) is not about what evangelicalism is, but rather how evangelicals are to recognize one another outside their local tribes? What are their common ends? Evangelicalism is not---for most of its adherents--a primary identity. Very few people are converted to ‘evangelicalism’ as such. Most are converted to Jesus and then sustain their faith through evangelical catechism, community and spiritual practice.” (270)
     

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