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Logos Evangelical Seminary Chancellor Felix Liu (劉富理) affirms that first generation leaders have thought of the second generation since the very beginning.
When the Evangelical Formosan Church (EFC,台福基督教會, prior to 1995 台語福音教會) was just one local church, Rev. Dr. Anthony So was hired to begin its English Ministries. When EFC’s training institution, Logos Evangelical Seminary (正道福音神學院, prior to 2007 美國台福神學院), wanted to begin its Asian American Ministry (AAM) program, So was tapped again for the job.
Tragically, this program did not have enough funding to be sustained after its initial launch.
While Logos knows its culture is not friendly to the second generation and beyond, nevertheless as a Chinese seminary in America, they continue to do what they can to champion second generation ministries.
The Evangelical Formosan Church
Before becoming first President of Logos Evangelical Seminary, Rev. Dr. Liu was also the Senior Pastor under which the EFC began its church planting. As reflected in their Chinese name changes, the EFC and Logos enlarged their vision beyond just Taiwanese-language speakers. Today, EFC is a worldwide denomination of 132 churches and counting.
While its origins and its first churches were planted in Southern California, today, its North American churches make up less than a third of its members.
Beginnings of EFC, 1970
In 1965, immigration quotas were made equal to European countries, and more and more Chinese immigrated into the United States. The first after 1965 were mainly from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Those who were Christians brought their love for God with them, starting Bible studies and churches in America.
The EFC traces its beginnings to one such church started in Los Angeles in 1965 known as First Evangelical Church (FEC, 羅省基督教會). In 1970, with the blessing of FEC, a group went out and formed the Evangelical Formosan Church under the leadership of Reverend Dr. Samuel Kau (高集樂).
According to the Migration Policy Institute, Taiwanese immigration more than quadrupled between 1980 and 2000. As more Taiwanese came, the more Taiwanese Christians came, intensifying outreach efforts to their compatriots.
Rev. Felix Liu moved from Taiwan to Los Angeles in 1974. In 1975, he was called to be the EFC’s second senior pastor after Rev. Kau was called to help start a seminary in Hong Kong.
EFC was just a single church in this time period and it grew quickly. With more members, came more children born and attending American schools.
EFC begins its English Ministry, 1979
At a conference, Liu noticed a 1.5 generation man leading worship. He later discovered that this young man was Hokkienese.
Hokkien is close enough to Taiwanese, thought Liu. Here is someone who can understand the first generation, and also the second generation. “So I think, he is the one to come to pastor our second generation.”
Rev. Liu recruited Anthony So (蘇炳甘) to be an English Advisor in 1979, and So was the first full-time English ministry pastor to be ordained in the EFC. Having spent his young adult life in Hong Kong before he came to the States, he could relate to first generation culture. Converted and nurtured in the faith in Melbourne, Australia, he could better relate to second generation culture. He had some student ministry experience too. When he met Liu, he was helping out the college ministry at the Church on Brady (now, Mosaic Church).
Initially, Rev. So had a difficult time. He wasn’t accustomed to the Taiwanese American second generation culture. However, he was convicted to build up their faith in Christ, so he set himself the task to develop an English worship service, a Friday night fellowship and regional cell groups. Soon, many came to accept Christ as their Lord and Savior, and the English Ministry thrived. He modeled what it would look like, plotting a course for each subsequent EFC English Ministry.
That same year, the EFC began to plant churches all around Southern California. By 1982, after the establishment of the first five EFC churches, the EFC itself became a denomination.
Thanks to Rev. Liu and Rev. So’s efforts establishing second generation English speaking ministries from the outset, EFC churches bypassed much of the debate happening in many Chinese churches in America in this period: whether or not there was an actual need for a separate English ministry.
EFC adopts a vision in 1986: “Attempt great things for God, rescue millions of souls.”
The EFC continued to grow, now beyond California. In 1984, a Taiwanese church in St. Paul, Minnesota joined its mission, as did a Bible study in Denver and a church in San Antonio in 1985. That same year, EFC Arcadia (Southern California) was planted, and as well as EFC Houston (Texas). The EFC had 10 churches by the end of 1985.
One day in 1986, Pastor Liu received this in prayer: “Attempt great things for God, rescue millions of souls.”
When he shared this phrase, it seemed exactly to describe what God had already been doing in the EFC. The EFC leadership decided to adopt this phrase as their vision. They excitedly took out a map of the United States and looked to see where else they could plant and made a goal to be a denomination of 25 churches by 1990. They called this goal “9025.”
They did not know then that some of these churches would planted outside the United States. EFC’s 22nd church was in Costa Rica, the 23rd was in Melbourne, Australia, the 24th in Auckland, New Zealand. On April 1, 1990, EFC Sydney (Australia) was established as the 25th EFC.
God clearly exceeded their goal. By 1995 and with no new set goals, there were 32 EFC churches worldwide.
Fulfilling the need for more trained Pastors: Logos Evangelical Seminary, 1989
With many more churches, many more ministers were needed, and in 1989, Logos Evangelical Seminary was founded to train those ministers for the EFC’s unique contexts.
First meeting in the basement of EFC Los Angeles, Logos quickly moved to a building on William Carey International University’s campus in Pasadena before acquiring its own space in El Monte, California in 1996.
Logos was busy, creating and strengthening their Doctor of Ministry (DMin), Master of Divinity (MDiv) and other Masters programs. By 1999, it was accredited by the Association of Theological Schools (ATS), the first Asian seminary in America to do so. In 2012, Logos received additional accreditation by Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). This fall, a PhD program in Biblical Studies was launched, another first at any Asian American seminary.
Historian Tim Tseng, formerly the founder of the Asian American Center at the American Baptist Seminary of the West (ABSW), commends Logos for its focus on getting accredited. “Getting accredited is not an easy thing.” To Tseng, “Accreditation is an indication that Logos wants to be recognized as a mainstream and legitimate theological institution in the North American scene.”
Becoming a Chinese seminary
Logos even opened themselves up beyond Formosans, the old Dutch word for Taiwanese.
Originally, all classes were taught in Taiwanese. In 1994, Rev. James Taylor, descendent of the famed missionary Hudson Taylor, visited the seminary, and he challenged them to think beyond the Taiwanese. Taylor pointed them to China and to other Chinese, 20% of the world’s population.
Overcoming historical discomforts, Logos put the Gospel first and changed its main language of instruction to Mandarin Chinese and began recruiting Chinese-speaking students that same year. Today, current President Kuo-liang Lin says that Taiwanese is not the first language of the majority of his faculty. More than 40% of Logos students are from Mainland China.
However, the second generation continues to elude Logos.
“We still consider this our shortage,” says Liu.
EFC begins missions work in Taiwan and
Logos remembers the American-born second generation
In 1996, the EFC made (and met) the goal of “2050,” to be a denomination of 50 churches by 2000.
Despite its phenomenal church growth, the EFC had yet to plant churches in its homeland of Taiwan. After years of prayer and conversations with the Presbyterian church in Taiwan, God gave the EFC a green light. In April 1996, Felix Liu was nominated to start a initiative called the “Taiwan Missions Department.”
According to EFC’s own history: “While [EFC General Assembly] members still cared for global missionary work, ‘Taiwan Mission’ again got people’s attention.’”
Several months later in August, Helen Lee’s seminal article, “Silent Exodus” in Christianity Today was published. As she wrote, “Asian churches in the United States are discovering that despite their spectacular growth they are simultaneously losing their children.”
This article was widely circulated and served as a clarion call to both first and second generation Asian Americans nationwide. It rang true and broke the hearts of the late, then Logos Vice President Silas Chan and then President Felix Liu.
“It’s like Nehemiah, they heard the cry, and they came to really pray about that. They are the visionaries,” says Rev. Anthony So.
After four years of praying and planning, then Professor (now Emeritus) Dr. Wilfred Su (蘇文隆) bumped into So in a market and shared this with Liu. Dr. Liu considers this a “special arrangement” of God and hired So start an Asian American Ministry (AAM) program for Logos.
Logos’ Asian American Ministry (AAM) program
The eventual mission that was crafted: “To create teams of Asian American Christians who will evangelize and nurture the Asian American community.”
When So arrived at Logos in 2001, an outgoing second generation staff told him not to waste his time.
This mentality was understandable to So. “Many in the first generation profess to have a burden but do nothing. The truth is they are not always ready for change.”
It also made it more difficult to know where to begin. His past experience with the EFC was years ago. He had been away from Southern California, so he barely knew anyone anymore.
So started praying. Three other pastors regularly prayed with him for three years: a Japanese American pastor, a Chinese American pastor and a Caucasian American pastor.
Logos AAM: “talk shows”
The prayers resulted in efforts to gather people in what Logos called “talk shows.” In the days of Phil Donahue and Oprah, So invited various second generation leaders like John Lo of Epicentre Church, Ken Fong of Evergreen Baptist Church and Tim Tseng of ABSW to be involved as moderators, interviewees and panelists. The audience also was invited to ask questions.
“That was a time we really wanted to give a platform to the leaders of the second generation to speak out.”
This was So’s way of communicating that Logos wanted to listen. It was also a way to build relationship and really hone in on what people were thinking and what truly were the needs.
The first summer Logos AAM courses
Summer courses soon followed, lasting one or two weeks. In addition to Prof. So, scholars and pastors like Dr. Richard Chung (鍾嘉輝), English Ministry Pastor at Chinese Evangelical Free Church of Los Angeles (CEFCLA), and Dr. Russell Yee and Dr. Young Lee Hertig with the Institute for the Study of Asian American Christians (ISAAC) taught Logos AAM classes.
Dr. Yee taught classes like “Worship, Ministry and Culture in Asian American Settings,” for six straight summers. He recollects teaching the very first AAM class with Dr. So.
“What was most striking is that the students were overwhelmingly not from the original target demographic of 1.5+ generation folks focused on English-speaking ministry. Rather, almost all were first generation folks, basically trying to understand their own kids and their kids’ peers! Which was beautiful, even if it wasn’t the plan,” wrote Dr. Yee in an email.
Dr. Tim Tseng of ABSW too remembers these first generation students. “I’ve taught two classes at Logos Evangelical Seminary where I’ve taken my Mandarin-speaking students to Little Tokyo, Koreatown, Cambodian, and Vietnamese communities in Los Angeles to learn about more about what God is doing in these Asian immigrant communities. We’ve learned about how to overcome racism and cultural differences.”
Logos AAM’s diverse consulting group
Liu also remembers a “very special consultant board” recruited from all over the country, with many different kinds of Asian American Christians. Along with himself and Dr. So, this group consisted of EFC and Logos affiliates like the late Logos Vice President Silas Chan; Logos Board Member, Dr. Pojen Chen; EFC Los Angeles English Pastor David Tsai and Chairman of this AAM Board, John Chou. EFC/Logos outsiders were also included like the late Filipino American Genaro Diesto, Director of American Baptists in Higher Education and Pastor of Temple Baptist Church in Los Angeles; Chinese American Jeanette Yep, then National Field Director of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship; Roy Tinkleberg, then Pastor of Christian Layman Church in Oakland, California; third generation Chinese American Ken Fong, Pastor of Evergreen Baptist Church in Rosemead, California; and Japanese American Cyril Nishimoto, Executive Director of Iwa. They were flown in twice a year to help Logos think broadly and deeply about all Asian Americans, including South Asian Americans, Southeast Asians and multiracial people.
All these people came to help, according to Dr. So, because they really had a heartfelt burden to do something for the second generation.
John Chou got involved because he wanted to address the “silent exodus” and “minimize friction between English pastors and the senior pastor in immigrant Asian American churches.”
To Dr. So: “Asian American ministry was way ahead of us. But still, I think we wanted to have some sort of platform for them as we encouraged one another to continue to build this identity together.”
The need for AAM
What was the need? The Logos AAM program brochure highlights Matthew 9:37. “The harvest is plentiful but the workers are few.”
The demand for Christian workers was outpacing the training abilities of ministries. To Logos, the reason for declining second generation attendance at their home churches was because of a lack of “leadership, awareness or communication” between generations that result in a clash in cultures.
The brochure continues: “It is vital to have church leaders who can understand their culture and way of life. Not only are these ministers and pastors important in reducing the gap between the 1st and 2nd generation (and beyond) but the fast growth of the Asian American population [have made them] like ‘sheep without a shepherd.’”
In the last four years, seminaries have started three Asian American programs. In 2011, Seattle Pacific University’s Asian American Ministry Program began. Biola University’s Talbot School of Theology started a Doctor in Ministry (DMin) track for Asian Americans in 2013. That same year, Fuller Seminary began its Asian American Initiative.
All point to Hoover Wong’s 1988-93 efforts at Fuller with the Chinese Studies Program as the first. However, according to historian Tim Tseng, Logos really was the first full-fledged Asian American program among the evangelicals.
A program for both English-speaking second generation
and Chinese-speaking first generation together
Logos planned to welcome both English-speaking second generation and Chinese-speaking students with two tracks: an English and a Chinese one.
A portion of campus would be reserved just for the second generation, as a sanctuary of sorts. In time, they would be integrated with the Chinese-speaking first generation. The hope was that they would emerge from Logos with some experience of knowing how to relate and work together as an inter-generational team.
According to Anthony So, Logos graduates are the future senior pastors and ministry leaders of the Chinese church in America and worldwide. “We pray that someday our graduates can minister to that second generation and respect the second generation, who will be Korean, Chinese, etc…all mixed together.”
So and his team designed a MA and MDiv program in what Logos called “Asian American Studies.” Despite its name, it was completely different from the secular academic discipline of Asian American Studies.
With curriculum designed by then Director of Master’s Degree Programs Ekron Chen (陳愛光), classes included: “Asian American Church in Historical Perspective,” “Theological Issues in the East Asian Church, ” “Leadership and Community Life in the Asian Church” and “Theological Issues in the Asian American Experience.” Logos’ current course catalog still lists these classes, 18 in all. The AAM concentration itself was six classes in addition to the usual seminary requirements.
In addition, Logos and Fuller Seminary also partnered to create a double degree program. After applying and being admitted to both schools, it was possible in three and a half years to obtain an MA in Intercultural Studies from Fuller and either an MA or an MDiv in Asian American Studies from Logos.
The program matched ATS requirements, and was also endorsed by deans at Azusa Pacific’s Haggard School of Theology and Biola’s Talbot School of Theology.
Logos AAM loses its funding
Just as the double degree program was ready to launch in 2003, finances no longer allowed for both tracks. In Dean Chen’s words: “We did not have enough resources to pull off a full-blown degree program in English.“
There was much shock and considerable disappointment. To put in so much work and to not really be able to begin! They tried to find funds through grants, but got rejected. Plans for the AAM program crumbled.
The EFC continued to run with its vision. In 2003, after six years, the EFC now had 10 new churches in Taiwan, necessitating a Logos branch to be opened in Taiwan in 2007. In 2009, Logos opened a branch in Chicago.
As Chancellor Liu, Professor So and Dean Chen repeated many times, the culture of Logos is not friendly to the next generation, to second generation Asian Americans.
But nevertheless, So says, “I think it was a good ride. That’s how we connected with all these leaders.”
. . .
A few AAM graduates did result. One of those graduates now works in Dean Chen’s office, Teresa Kao, who came to California from Taiwan at age 17.
The AAM program helped Kao understand that her background was perhaps more modern than the post-modern kids she ministered to as a youth advisor in California. Instead of being directive as her own youth workers had modeled, she realized that before American-raised youth would listen to her, she had to show them that she really cared. Was this difference more because of generational or Taiwan/US differences, Kao was not sure, but she knows that the postmodern/modern distinction helped her. Almost eight years later, she is still friends with many of the youth from that time.
Students question the necessity of the one lingering and required AAM class
Today, one AAM class remains. “Asian American Ministry I” is required for all MDiv students and is taught by Professor So and 1.5 generation English Ministry Pastor Richard Chung. This class is primarily about first and second generation issues and introducing native Chinese speakers to the Asian American context, as So puts it, “from 1800 to Jeremy Lin” in the present.
Dean Chen admits that he gets the most complaints about this one class. Students want to free themselves from its requirement.
Logos is a school taught in Mandarin Chinese, and naturally, it attracts students who are most comfortable in that language. The AAM class, however, is taught in English.
“The reason for this is so that they will be able to get a sense of how to be in the shoes of the second generation. We help them to be aware of the need for second generation ministry, as well as to develop empathy for the second generation, for their struggles,” says Professor So.
No doubt it is challenging for these students to listen to lectures in English, though if it is really a hardship, they can respond and do their assignments in Chinese.
The language of instruction, however, is not what students complain about. They complain about its purpose.
“Why should we be required to take this class when this is only a US problem?”
Increasingly, Logos has been seeing more students from Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia and especially China. In 2014, 60% of all Logos students were citizens from somewhere other than North America. Today, less than a third of EFC churches are in North America.
“I never budge. I tell them we are seminary in America. We need to provide this kind of education.” Chen tells his students that since they are in America, and they must learn about ministry in America.
And of course, some do end up staying, and many have lived here for years.
Some students have graduated and served in churches with a second generation demographic. They have come back to Chen and said, “Thank you. I didn’t think I needed that class, but it turned out to be really helpful.” It’s helped them to engage and have deeper connections with their second generation ministry peers.
Without training, new Mainland Chinese Christians
could re-flare first/second generational ministry tensions
Since 2000, Taiwanese immigration has stemmed significantly. According to the Migration Policy Institute, “Compared to the U.S. foreign-born population overall, Taiwanese immigrants are less likely to have arrived in the United States in the past two decades.”
While the number of Taiwanese from Taiwan has considerably tapered, more and more are coming from China. In fact, most immigrants today in the US are from China. Since 2013, China has replaced Mexico as the top country of origin for immigrants, and the Chinese (from all over) are also the largest group of Asians in the United States.
“We have built up a lot of Christians from Taiwan and Hong Kong. But those from Mainland China, many of them are young Christians. They have no idea what you are talking about [when you say]: ‘second generation ministry.’ They themselves could not minister to the second generation, since they do not have the perception and importance of the second generation,” says Professor So.
Professor So warns that the first-second generational ministry divide could get worse.
Many of the earlier Chinese who immigrated in the 1960s to 2000 came from Taiwan and Hong Kong as Christians.
“They came here with some dream of God. That’s why they came here and started building churches, Bible study groups.”
The Mainland Chinese, however, were raised in a country where it is still illegal to proselytize Christianity. Many knew little about religion, let alone about Christ when they came to the States. As Prof. So continues, “Many came as non-Christians, dreaming of gold. So in a sense, the second generation will be an even lower priority for them.”
Compared to those who grew up in the church and in Christian homes, there will be so much more Biblical knowledge to impart, Kingdom values to acquire than, before they attempt effective Christ-centered outreach, reconciliation and partnership. Disciples of Jesus are not made overnight.
Mainland Chinese keep Chinese churches busy
It is hard to avoid contact with the Mainland Chinese if you are in a Chinese organization or ministry. Chinese churches have their hands full with the new flood of immigrants, perhaps more so than serving the previous wave from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Southeast Asia.
Cultural differences reveal themselves first in language. In 2014, 38.5% of Logos students were citizens of China.
“All my students, they speak perfect Mandarin. And our Mandarin sounds so funny,” says Professor So.
Mandarin was not the native tongue of So or Rev. Dr. Liu or many of the original EFC founders. It was not even the tongue of their parents and grandparents. It was taught to them in schools in Hong Kong and Taiwan.
It is, however, for Mainland Chinese their mother tongue.
Dreams of an AAM program in changing times
If resources were no barrier, Liu, Chen and So don’t hesitate, they would love to institute an AAM program again. Dean Chen dreams of a whole department with staff. Professor So dreams of a building just for the second generation and beyond.
Despite Logos’ current lack of resources, Liu stresses that AAM continues to be a priority.
“The board all care about this.”
Liu, Chen and So realize that times are now different, that there are not as many first and second generation problems.
“Now it is the reverse,” says Professor So. “Many of them are coming to me to pastor their parents. Many parents who have been here in the States for a while, tend to follow their children to church, the new church.” Parents want to be with their children. “The mentality is still very Confucian. ‘If at all possible, we need to be together as a family.’ So anytime we don’t worship together, it feels like something is missing. That is why many parents if they can understand English sermons, they’d much rather go over there.”
Professor So’s thoughts on the new AAM programs in seminaries
“I think bless their heart. They need to continue to do that.”
He also urges them to think more broadly.
“I think they need to realize that just addressing Asian American identity and issues is just part of the whole redemptive work of Asian American ministry.” He hopes they will include the first generation, because without them, they cannot come close to a full picture of Asian American ministries.
“All these programs need to have more people from the first generation to be involved, to give perspective and to help develop programs that are a more accurate representation of Asian American.” If you do not include the first generation—in conversation, in understanding, in reconciliation—how can you move forward and not repeat what they’ve modeled? How can you know yourself truly? Second generation has been “nurtured from day one by first generation.” How can you know what God’s done?
AACCS revives hopes to love the second generation
In May 2015, the Logos Board voted to take the Asian American Christian Counseling Service (AACCS) under their wing.
Through its five offices in Southern California, AACCS is a non-denominational, non-profit counseling service “that seeks to integrate biblical faith and the nuances of Asian American culture with professional counseling and psychotherapy.” It was incorporated as a nonprofit in 1986.
To Asian American ministry pioneer Tom Steers of the Navigators, the AACCS helped make psychological therapy acceptable among cultures who do not normally embrace it in Southern California.
“They asked us. We didn’t seek them out,” said current Logos President Kuo-Liang Lin (林國亮).
Both Chancellor Liu and President Lin, Taiwanese-Americans who grew up at the tail end of Japan’s occupation of Taiwan, independently remark on how AACCS started in 1978 as a ministry of Japanese American Churches.
“And they have come to us!”
According to its recent newsletter, AACCS had been praying for “new leadership and infrastructure support.” An AACCS therapist intern himself, Professor So was the one who introduced both institutions. After more than a year of conversations and prayers, the AACCS felt that its vision and priorities did line up with those of Logos. President Lin is both a pastor and social worker by training, with a third graduate degree in Family Studies. His background and Logos’ pre-existing plans to launch a Masters in Marriage and Family program dovetails nicely with AACCS.
AACCS was also impressed by Logos’ commitment to the second generation and beyond.
Both Chancellor Liu and President Lin independently mention on how they see this opportunity with AACCS as another way to serve the second and future generations. This revives their hopes of serving the second generation more fully, as longed for since EFC’s beginnings.
. . .
EFC, Logos’ mother organization, keeps growing and setting big goals. Its current goal is what it calls “EFC Jubilee 2020-200-20,000.” By 2020, the EFC hopes to comprise of 200 churches, and raise up 20,000 new disciples of Christ.
As of September 2015, the EFC consists of 132 churches, 72 of those in Taiwan, 38 in North America, 3 in Central America, 15 in Australia and New Zealand, and 4 in the “Fourth Mission District” comprising of Mainland China, Japan and Indonesia.
Logos with its own Foundation founded in 2000 and separate from the EFC, moves again, beyond its comforts, as the Lord leads. From widening their embrace beyond the Taiwanese to the Mainland Chinese, to intentionally providing a concrete platform for second generation Asian Americans to help craft an AAM program, to now taking a ministry with Japanese American Christian roots under its wing, Logos overall has proven itself to be open to change.
And its leaders seem hopeful, of its desires to embrace the second generation and beyond. All this is for God and the next generations. They are their children after all.
Joanna Wu, “A Biblical Perspective on Relational Dynamics within the Immigrant Church: An Interview with Dr. Anthony So,” in Understanding Cultural Difference in Chinese American Church. Presence Annual Newsletter. Walnut, CA: Presence Ministry, 2012.
Revised: Oct 30, 2015
Tagged with: 1.5 generation • 1965 Immigration Act • Anthony So • Asian American Christian Counseling Service (AACCS) • Asian American Ministry (seminary program) • ATS: Association of Theological Schools • Chinese • Christianity Today • counseling • Cyril Nishimoto • David Tsai • denomination • EFC: Evangelical Formosan Church • Ekron Chen • English Ministry • Felix Liu • First Evangelical Church (FEC • first generation • Genaro Diesto • Helen Lee • Hokkien • Hong Kong • Hudson Taylor • ISAAC: Institute for the Study of Asian American Christianity • James Taylor • Jeanette Yep • Jeremy Lin • John Chou • John Lo • Ken Fong • Kuo-liang Lin • Logos Evangelical Seminary • Los Angeles • Los Angeles area) • Mainland Chinese • missions to Taiwan • Mosaic Church (Los Angeles Area) • Pojen Chen • Richard Chung • Roy Tinkleberg • Russell Yee • second generation • Silas Chan • Silent Exodus • Southern California • Taiwan • Taiwanese • Teresa Kao • Tim Tseng • Wilfred Su • Young Lee Hertig
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